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Erik Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development

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❶Friedman, Lawrence Jacob If mom and dad can give the newborn a degree of familiarity, consistency, and continuity, then the child will develop the feeling that the world is a safe place to be, that people are reliable and loving.

Erikson's Eight Stages of Development

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If a stage is managed well, we carry away a certain virtue or psychosocial strength which will help us through the rest of the stages of our lives. On the other hand, if we don't do so well, we may develop maladaptations and malignancies, as well as endanger all our future development Boeree.

A malignancy is the worse of the two, and involves too little of the positive and too much of the negative aspect of the task, such as a person who can't trust others. A maladaptation is not quite as bad and involves too much of the positive and too little of the negative, such as a person who trusts too much Smith, Mistrust is the first stage an individual goes through in his or her personality development.

The optimal time for this stage to occur within is the newborn to two years of age. During the time the task is for the infant to develop a sense of trust without completely eliminating the sense of mistrust Smith, This stage is very dependent on the infant's parents or guardians'.

If mom and dad can give the newborn a degree of familiarity, consistency, and continuity, then the child will develop the feeling that the world is a safe place to be, that people are reliable and loving. If the parents are unreliable and inadequate, if they reject the infant or harm it, if other interests cause both parents to turn away from the infants needs to satisfy their own instead, then the infant. He or she will be apprehensive and suspicious around people Boeree.

Parents do not have to be perfect and should teach the infant some sense of mistrust. Parents who immediately tend to their infants' every need are enforcing a sense. Page 1 of Stages of Psychosocial Development Eventually Erikson and his family went to Boston where he was offered a position at the Harvard Medical School and practiced child psychoanalysis privately.

Stages of Psychosocial Development Eriksons Theory of Personality Development Throughout his life, while studying theories of other psychologist's such as Sigmund Freud and Heinz Hartmann, Erikson developed theories of personality development himself. The various tasks are referred to by two terms, the first is what the individual is striving to achieve and the second is what the Erik Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development individual is at risk of developing if he or she does not successfully achieve the first term.

Regardless of the field of study, all of the scholars view the individual as their point of reference and focus on how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by others in ways that shape identity and individuality; and how people develop the appropriate cognitive, personal, and social skills they need to function as productive members their societies.

One of these social scientists is the theorist Erik Erikson, who perhaps more than any other social psychologist, worked to understand personal and social identity.

Social psychology deals primarily with socialization and face-to-face and small group social interaction. Regardless of the field of study, all of the scholars view the individual as their point of reference and focus on how a person's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are affected by others in ways that shape identity and individuality, and how people develop the appropriate cognitive, personal, and social skills they need to function as productive members their societies.

The word "identity" stems from the Latin idem, which evokes sameness and continuity. Identity primarily became a focus for psychological scholarship in the twentieth century, developing, first, from Freud's theory of identification and, second, from Erikson's work on the connections between the individual and his or her community.

Where Freud emphasized identity as a relatively continuous inner core of psychic structure somewhat stable, fixed, and immutable , Erikson emphasized the processual nature of identity: Consequently, although Erikson drew from Freud, he is viewed as a neo-Freudian who saw development as stretching beyond childhood the age of 5, which is where Freud saw development ending across the life course or as Erikson put it, life cycle; A number of psychoanalysts -- such as Alfred Adler, Erick Fromm, Karen Horney and Carl Jung -- departed from Freud's approach to the unconscious and the development of identity.

Although they retained his emphasis on the unconscious as a driving force in human behaviors, emotions, and cognitions, they differed in the emphasis they placed on its immutability, the significance of childhood, and the importance of social and cultural influences.

The Swiss psychologist and psychoanalyst Carl Jung argued that the unconscious was considerably broader in scope and impact than Freud believed and that there were universal elements that were consistent across cultural groups and historical periods. Generativity versus stagnation is the seventh of eight stages of Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.

This stage takes place during during middle adulthood ages 40 to 65 yrs. Generativity refers to "making your mark" on the world through creating or nurturing things that will outlast an individual. People experience a need to create or nurture things that will outlast them, often having mentees or creating positive changes that will benefit other people. We give back to society through raising our children, being productive at work, and becoming involved in community activities and organizations.

Through generativity we develop a sense of being a part of the bigger picture. Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment, while failure results in shallow involvement in the world. By failing to find a way to contribute, we become stagnant and feel unproductive. These individuals may feel disconnected or uninvolved with their community and with society as a whole. Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of care.

This stage begins at approximately age 65 and ends at death. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and can develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.

Erik Erikson believed if we see our lives as unproductive, feel guilt about our past, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair, often leading to depression and hopelessness.

Success in this stage will lead to the virtue of wisdom. Wisdom enables a person to look back on their life with a sense of closure and completeness, and also accept death without fear. Wise people are not characterized by a continuous state of ego integrity, but they experience both ego integrity and despair. Thus, late life is characterized by both integrity and despair as alternating states that need to be balanced.

By extending the notion of personality development across the lifespan, Erikson outlines a more realistic perspective of personality development McAdams, Middle and late adulthood are no longer viewed as irrelevant, because of Erikson, they are now considered active and significant times of personal growth.

Many people find that they can relate to his theories about various stages of the life cycle through their own experiences. However, Erikson is rather vague about the causes of development. What kinds of experiences must people have to successfully resolve various psychosocial conflicts and move from one stage to another?

The theory does not have a universal mechanism for crisis resolution. Indeed, Erikson acknowledges his theory is more a descriptive overview of human social and emotional development that does not adequately explain how or why this development occurs.

For example, Erikson does not explicitly explain how the outcome of one psychosocial stage influences personality at a later stage. One of the strengths of Erikson's theory is its ability to tie together important psychosocial development across the entire lifespan. The science of mind and behavior. The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology , 5 2 , Personality trait structure as a human universal.

American Psychologist, 52 5 , Erik Erikson's stages of psychosocial development. The infant develops a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence.

The child begins to assert control and power over their environment by planning activities, accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. Success at this stage leads to a sense of purpose. If initiative is dismissed or discourages, either through criticism or control, children develop a sense of guilt.

The child is coping with new learning and social demands. Teenagers explore who they are as individuals, and seek to establish a sense of self, and may experiment with different roles, activities, and behaviors. According to Erikson, this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life.

Success leads to strong relationships, while failure results in loneliness and isolation. Success at this stages leads to feelings of wisdom, while failure results in regret, bitterness, and despair.

Guilt Purpose 3 - 5 4. Inferiority Competency 5 - 12 5. Role Confusion Fidelity 12 - 18 6. Isolation Love 18 - 40 7. Stagnation Care 40 - 65 8. Download this article as a PDF. Erikson - why was he important? This stage begins at birth and lasts through one year of age. The infant develops a sense of trust when interactions provide reliability, care, and affection.


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Erikson Institute is the premier early childhood development organization committed to ensuring that all children have equitable opportunities to realize their potential. Erik Erikson; Philanthropy; Our Influence; Location; Graduate Education. Our research and work in the community generates new knowledge, invigorates our academic.

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Erik Erikson is listed as number 12 on the American Psychological Association’s list of the most eminent psychologists of the 20th century. Sources Coles, R., Hunt, R., and Maher, B. ().

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Erik Erikson Research Papers delve into his theory of emotional development. As one of the most famous psychologists, Erik Erikson research papers may overview his achievements, his psychological theories or compare and contrast his theories to other great psychologists. If life is to be sustained hope must remain, even where confidence is wounded, trust impaired."—Erik Erikson, The Erik Erikson Reader, Erikson's Notoriety Erikson's stage theory of psychosocial development generated interest and research on human development through the lifespan.

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Erik Erikson: Stages of Psychosocial Development BY Introduction Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, Erikson's father was a Danish man and abandoned his mother, Karla Abrahamsen, before he was born.4/4(1). Erik Erikson was a 20th century psychologist who developed the theory of psychosocial development and the concept of an identity crisis. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, in